Primary Sources On This Website

Primary Sources Elsewhere

  • Agobard of Lyon, On the Baptism of Slaves Belonging to Jews
  • Cain Adamnain: An Old-Irish Treatise on the Law of Adamnan
  • Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History. Edited by Nehemia Levtzion and J.F.P. Hopkins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. 
  • Hunwick, John, and Eve Troutt Powell, The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of Islam, 5-7. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2002. Hadith selections from al-Bukhari, al-Jami’ al-sahih.
  • Lopez, Robert, and Irving Raymond, eds. Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. See especially docs. 4 (al-Jahiz, The Investigation of Commerce, p.28-29), 5-6 (Ibn Khurradadhbah, Book of Routes and Kingdoms, p.29-33), 7 (Pactum Sicardi, p.33-35).
  • MacGregor, Neil. A History of the World in 100 Objects. New York: Penguin Books, 2010. No. 52, “Harem Wall-painting Fragments,” p.333-338.

Selected Bibliography

  • Ali, Kecia. Marriage and Slavery in Early Islam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.
  • Anderson, Glaire. “Concubines, Eunuchs and Patronage in Early Islamic Córdoba.” In Reassessing the Roles of Women as “Makers” of Medieval Art and Architecture, vol. 2, edited by Therese Martin, 633–670. Leiden: Brill, 2012.
  • Bacharach, Jere L. “African Military Slaves in the Medieval Middle East: The Cases of Iraq (869–955) and Egypt (868–1171).” International Journal of Middle East Studies 13 (1981): 471–495.
  • Barton, Simon. Conquerors, Brides, and Concubines: Interfaith Relations and Social Power in Medieval Iberia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.
  • Bray, Julia. “Men, Women, and Slaves in Abbasid Society.” In Gender in the Early Medieval World, East and West, 300-900, edited by Leslie Brubaker and Julia M. H. Smith, 121-146. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Brink, Stefan. “Slavery in the Viking Age.” In The Viking World, edited by Stefan Brink and Neil Price, 49-56. London: Routledge, 2008.
  • Campbell, Gwyn. “East Africa in the Early Indian Ocean World Slave Trade: The Zanj Revolt Reconsidered.” In Early Exchange between Africa and the Wider Indian Ocean World, 275–303. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2016.
  • Chang Hsing-lang [Zhang Xinglang]. “The Importation of Negro Slaves to China under the T’ang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907).” Bulletin of the Catholic University of Peking 7 (1930): 37-59. 
  • Cho, Bup-Jong. “Studies on the Kingship of Silla and System of Nobi” (신라왕권과노비제). The Research Institute For SILLA Culture: Dongguk University, 22 (2003). [In Korean]
  • Constable, Olivia R. “Muslim Spain and Mediterranean Slavery: The Medieval Slave Trade as an Aspect of Muslim-Christian Relations,” in Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000-1500, edited by Scott Waugh and Peter Diehl, 264-84. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Coupland, Simon. “The Vikings on the Continent in Myth and History,” History 88, no. 290 (2003): 186–203.
  • Delvaux, Matthew C. “Transregional Slave Networks of the Northern Arc, 700–900 C.E.” Ph.D. dissertation, Boston College, 2019.
  • Dockès, Pierre. Medieval Slavery and Liberation. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
  • Fontaine, Janel M. “Early Medieval Slave-Trading in the Archaeological Record: Comparative Methodologies.” Early Medieval Europe 25, no. 4 (2017): 466–488.
  • Gordon, Matthew S. “ʿArib Al-Maʾmuniya: A Third/Ninth Century ʿAbbasid Courtesan.” In Views from the Edge: Essays in Honor of Richard W. Bulliet, 86–100. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
  • Gronenborn, Detlef. “Kanem-Borno: A Brief Summary of the History and Archaeology of an Empire of the Central bilad al-sudan.” In West Africa During the Atlantic Slave Trade: Archaeological Perspectives, edited by Christopher DeCorse, 101-130. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 2001.
  • Haour, Anne. “The Early Medieval Slave Trade of the Central Sahel: Archaeological and Historical Considerations.” In Slavery in Africa: Archaeology and Memory, edited by Paul J. Lane and Kevin C. MacDonald, 61-78. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Holm, Poul. “The Slave Trade of Dublin, Ninth to Twelfth Centuries.” Peritia 5 (1986): 317–45.
  • Houston, Stephen, David Stuart, and Karl Taube. “Dishonor.” In The Memory of Bones: Body, Being, and Experience among the Classic Maya, 202-226. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.
  • Karras, Ruth M. Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
  • Kim, Chong-sun. “The Slaves in the Silla Village Register.” (正倉院所藏新羅帳籍에나타난奴婢) The Korean Historical Review 123 (1989). [In Korean]
  • Kolias-Dermitzaki, Athina. “Some Remarks on the Fate of Prisoners of War in Byzantium (Ninth-Tenth Centuries).” In La liberazione dei “captivi” tra cristianità e islam: Oltre la crociata e il ĝihād: Tolleranza e servizio umanitario: Atti del Congresso Interdisciplinare di Studi Storici (Roma, 16-19 settembre 1998), edited by G. Cipollone, 583–620. Vatican City: Archivo Segreto Vaticano, 2000. 
  • Lemerle, Paul. The Agrarian History of Byzantium: From the Seventh to the Twelfth Century – Sources and Problems. Galway: Galway University Press, 1979. 
  • Lim, Young-ae. “The ‘Lion and Kunlun Slave’ Image: A Motif of Buddhist Art Found in Unified Silla Funerary Sculpture.” Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 18, no. 2 (2018).
  • Mattingly, David, and Martin Sterry. “Zuwila and Fazzan in the Seventh to Tenth Centuries: The Emergence of a New Trading Center.” In The Aghlabids and their Neighbours: Art and Material Culture in Ninth-Century North Africa, edited by Glaire D. Anderson, Corisande Fenwick and Mariam Rosser-Owen, 551-572. Leiden: Brill, 2018.
  • Mattson, Ingrid. “A Believing Slave is Better Than an Unbeliever: Status and Community in Early Islamic Society and Law.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 1999.
  • McCormick, Michael. “New Light on the ‘Dark Ages’: How the Slave Trade Fuelled the Carolingian Economy.” Past and Present 177 (2002): 17–54. 
  • Naumann, Elise et al., “Slaves as Burial Gifts in Viking Age Norway? Evidence from Stable Isotope and Ancient DNA Analyses.” Journal of Archaeological Science 41 (2014): 533–40.
  • Pelteret, David. Slavery in Early Medieval England: From the Reign of Alfred until the Twelfth Century. Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 1995.
  • Popovic, Alexandre. The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the 3rd/9th Century. Princeton: Markus Wiener, 1999.
  • Raffield, Ben. “The Slave Markets of the Viking World: Comparative Perspectives on an ‘Invisible Archaeology.'” Slavery and Abolition 40, no. 4 (2019): 682-705.
  • Raffield, Ben. “Raiding, Slaving, and the Economies of Unfreedom in the Viking Diaspora,”SAA Archaeological Record 18, no. 3 (May 2018): 32–34.
  • Richardson, Kristina. “Singing Slave Girls (Qiyan) of the Abbasid Court in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries.” In Children in Slavery through the Ages, edited by Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph C. Miller, 105-118. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2009.
  • Rio, Alice. Slavery After Rome, 500-1100. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
  • Seaver, Kristen A. “Thralls and Queens: Female Slavery in the Medieval Norse Atlantic.” In Women and Slavery: Africa, the Indian Ocean, and the Medieval North Atlantic, edited by Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph C. Miller, 147-167. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007.
  • Tung, Tiffiny. “Violence Against Women: Differential Treatment of Local and Foreign Females in the Heartland of the Wari Empire, Peru.” In The Bioarchaeology of Violence, ed. Debra Martin, Ryan Harrod, and Ventura Pérez, 180-198. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2012.
  • Tung, Tiffany A. and Kelly J Knudson. “Identifying locals, migrants, and captives in the Wari Heartland: A bioarchaeological and biogeochemical study of human remains from Conchopata, Peru.” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 30, no. 3, (Sept 2011): 247-61.
  • Wyatt, David. Slaves and Warriors in Medieval Britain and Ireland, 800-1200. Leiden: Brill, 2009.


Hannah Barker, Debra Blumenthal, Matthew Delvaux, Matthew Gordon, Kim Bok-rae, Paul Lane, Craig Perry, Don Wyatt