Primary Sources On This Website

Primary Sources Elsewhere

  • Allen, S.J. and Emilie Amt. The Crusades: A Reader. 2nd edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014. See especially doc. 80 (Siete Partidas, p.306-312).
  • Aquinas, Thomas. Summa of Theology, Q.96, “Dominion among Men in the State of Innocence” and Supplement, Q.52, “Is Slavery an Impediment to Marriage?” In St. Thomas Aquinas on Politics and Ethics, edited by Paul Sigmund, 38-39 and 82-83. New York: W.W. Norton, 1988.
  • Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History. Edited by Nehemia Levtzion and J.F.P. Hopkins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. 
  • Hirth, Friedrich, and W. W. Rockhill, trans. Chau Ju-kua: His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, Entitled Chu-fan-chï. St. Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1911. Repr., New York: Paragon Book Reprint Corp., Arno Press, 1966. An updated and searchable translation with accompanying maps and commentary is available here: Shao-yun Yang, “A Chinese Gazetteer of Foreign Lands: A New Translation of Part 1 of the Zhufan zhi 諸蕃志 (1225).”
  • Ibn al-Sāʿī, ʿAlī Anjab. Consorts of the Caliphs, ed. Shawkat M. Toorawa. New York: New York University Press, 2015.
  • Lewis, Bernard, ed. Islam: From the Prophet Muhammad to the Capture of Constantinople. 3 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. See especially 2:165-168 (Al-Qalqashandi, An Invitation to Merchants).
  • Lopez, Robert, and Irving Raymond, eds. Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. See especially doc. 44 (Slave Sale Contract, p.115-116), 56 (Brokerage Fees at Narbonne, p.130-135).
  • Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim and Jewish Sources, ed. Olivia Remie Constable. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. See especially docs. 44 (“Hadith Bayad wa Riyad,” p.252-259), 55 (“Everyday Life in the Crown of Aragon,” p.310-321).
  • Rodriguez, Jarbel. Muslim and Christian Contact in the Middle Ages: A Reader. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2015. See especially doc. 42 (Las Siete Partidas, p.221-224).

Selected Bibliography

  • Amitai, Reuven, and Christoph Cluse, eds. Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean (c. 1000-1500 CE). Turnhout: Brepols, 2017.
  • Barker, Hannah. That Most Precious Merchandise: The Mediterranean Trade in Black Sea Slaves, 1260-1500. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019.
  • Barton, Simon. Conquerors, Brides, and Concubines: Interfaith Relations and Social Power in Medieval Iberia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.
  • Bartusis, M.C. Land and Privilege in Byzantium: The Institution of the Pronoia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  • Bensch, Stephen P. “From Prizes of War to Domestic Merchandise: The Changing Face of Slavery in Catalonia and Aragon, 1000-1300.” Viator 25 (1994): 63-93.
  • Biran, Michal. “Encounters Among Enemies: Preliminary Remarks on Captives in Mongol Eurasia.” Archivum Eurasia Medii Aevi 21 (2015): 27-42.
  • Burns, Robert I. “Interactive Slave Operations: Muslim-Christian-Jewish Contracts in Thirteenth-Century Barcelona.” Medieval Encounters 5, no. 2 (1999): 135-55.
  • Chatterjee, Indrani, and Richard Eaton, eds. Slavery and South Asian History. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2006.
  • Gillingham, John. “Women, Children, and the Profits of War,” in Gender and Historiography: studies in the Earlier Middle Ages in Honour of Pauline Stafford, edited by Janet Nelson, Susan Reynolds, and Susan Johns, 61-74. London: Institute of Historical Research, 2012.
  • Guérin, Sara M. “Ivory and the Ties that Bind.” In Whose Middle Ages? Teachable Moments for an Ill-Used Past, edited by Andrew Albin, Mary C. Erler, Thomas O’Donnell, Nicholas L. Paul, and Nina Rowe, 140-153. New York: Fordham University Press, 2019.
  • Haour, Anne. “The Early Medieval Slave Trade of the Central Sahel: Archaeological and Historical Considerations.” In Slavery in Africa: Archaeology and Memory, edited by Paul J. Lane and Kevin C. MacDonald, 61-78. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Helmholz, R.H. “The Law of Slavery and the European Ius Commune.” In The Legal Understanding of Slavery: From the Historical to the Contemporary, edited by Jean Allain, 17-39. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
  • Hong, Sung-gi. Research on Koryo Nobis (고려시대의노비연구). (Sugang University Press, 1980). [In Korean]
  • Junker, Laura L. “The Impact of Captured Women on Cultural Transmission in Contact-Period Philippine Slave-Raiding Chiefdoms.” In Invisible Citizens: Captives and Their Consequences, edited by Catherine M. Cameron, 110-37. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2008.
  • Karras, Ruth M. Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
  • Kohler, Timothy A. and Kathryn Kramer Turner. “Raiding for Women in the Pre-Hispanic Northern Pueblo Southwest? A Pilot Examination.” Current Anthropology, 47, no. 6 (2006): 1035-45.
  • Korpela, Jukka Jari. Slaves from the North: Finns and Karelians in the East European Slave Trade, 900–1600. Studies in Global Slavery 5. Leiden: Brill, 2018.
  • Koziol, Kathryn. “Performances of Imposed Status: Captivity at Cahokia.” In The Bioarchaeology of Violence, edited by Debra L. Martin, Ryan P. Harrod, and Ventura R. Pérez, 226-250. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2012.
  • Loiseau, Julien. “Frankish Captives in Mamluk Cairo.” Al-Masaq 23, no. 1 (2011): 37-52.
  • Marmon, Shaun. “Black Slaves in Mamlūk Narratives: Representations of Transgression.” Al-Qanṭara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 28, no. 2 (2007): 435–64.
  • Marmon, Shaun. “Domestic Slavery in the Mamluk Empire: A Preliminary Sketch.” In Slavery in the Islamic Middle East, edited by Shaun Marmon, 1–23. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 1999.
  • Marmon, Shaun. Eunuchs and Sacred Boundaries in Islamic Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Martin, Debra. “Ripped Flesh and Torn Souls: Skeletal Evidence for Captivity and Slavery from the La Plata Valley, New Mexico, AD 1100-1300.” In Invisible Citizens: Captives and their Consequences, ed. Catherine Cameron, 159-180. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2008.
  • Martin, Debra L., Ryan Harrod and Misty Fields. “Beaten Down and Worked to the Bone: Bioarchaeological Investigations of Women and Violence in the Ancient Southwest.” Landscapes of Violence 1, no. 1 (2010): 1-19.
  • Nelson, Thomas. “Slavery in Medieval Japan.” Monumenta Nipponica 59 (2004): 463-492.
  • Pankhurst, Richard. The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. Lawrence, KS: Red Sea Press, 1997.
  • Petry, Carl F. The Criminal Underworld in a Medieval Islamic Society. Chicago: Middle East Documentation Center, 2012. See especially “Murder by Domestic Slaves,” p. 224-237.
  • Rapoport, Yosef. “Women and Gender in Mamluk Society: An Overview.” Mamluk Studies Review 11 (2007): 1–45.
  • Rodriguez, Jarbel. Captives and their Saviors in the Medieval Crown of Aragon. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2007.
  • Stuard, Susan Mosher. “Ancillary Evidence for the Decline of Medieval Slavery.” Past and Present 149 (1995): 3-28.
  • Winer, Rebecca Lynn. “Conscripting the Breast: Lactation, Slavery and Salvation in the Realms of Aragon and Kingdom of Majorca, c. 1250–1300.” Journal of Medieval History 34:2 (2008): 164-184.
  • Winer, Rebecca Lynn. Women, Wealth and Community in Perpignan, c. 1250-1300: Christians, Jews, and Enslaved Muslims in a Medieval Mediterranean Town. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.  
  • Winer, Rebecca. “Jews, Slave-Holding, and Gender in the Crown of Aragon circa 1250-1492.” In Cautivas y esclavas: el tráfico humano en el Mediterráneo, edited by Aurelia Martín Casares and María Cristina Delaigue Séris, 43-60. Granada: University of Granada, 2017. 
  • Wink, André. al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, vol. 2: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th -13th Centuries. Leiden, 1997.
  • Witzenrath, Christoph. Eurasian Slavery, Ransom and Abolition in World History, 1200-1860. Farnham: Ashgate, 2015.
  • Wyatt, Don J. The Blacks of Premodern China. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.


Hannah Barker, Catherine Cameron, Matthew Delvaux, Richard Eaton, Paul Lane, Rena Lauer, Noel Lenski, Maria Olsen, Pamela Patton, Craig Perry, Rebecca Winer, Don Wyatt