Primary Sources On This Website
- Kilwa: Slavery on the East African Coast (Africa, Middle East and North Africa)
- Medieval Slavery in Zuwīla: Archaeological and Textual Sources (Africa)
- The Stories of Shāriya in the Book of Songs (Kitāb al-Aghānī) (Middle East and North Africa)
Primary Sources Elsewhere
- Amt, Emilie, ed. Women’s Lives in Medieval Europe: A Sourcebook. 2nd edition. London: Routledge, 2010. See especially doc. 34 (Anglo-Saxon Wills, p.114-117).
- Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History. Edited by Nehemia Levtzion and J.F.P. Hopkins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
- Haji, Hamid, ed. and trans. Inside the Immaculate Portal: A History from Early Fatimid Archives. London: I.B. Tauris, 2012.
- Ibn Faḍlān, “Mission to the Volga.” In Two Arabic Travel Books, edited by Philip Kennedy and Shawkat Toorawa, 165-298. New York: New York University Press, 2014. An excerpt is doc. 60 in Angus A. Somerville and R. Andrew McDonald, The Viking Age: A Reader, 3rd edition (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2020).
- Jansen, Katherine, Joanna Drell, and Frances Andrews. Medieval Italy: Texts in Translation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009. See especially doc. 112 (Will of Docibilis I of Gaeta, p.501-515).
- Lewis, Bernard, ed. Islam: From the Prophet Muhammad to the Capture of Constantinople. 3 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. See especially 1:43-46 (Kafur the Eunuch), 2:236-237 (A Letter of Deferred Manumission for a Slave), 2:237 (Nizam al-Mulk, Slaves in the Palace).
- The Life of Saint Basil the Younger: Critical Edition and Annotated Translation of the Moscow Version. Edited and translated by Denis Sullivan, Alice-Mary Talbot, and Stamatina McGrath. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 45. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014.
- Lopez, Robert, and Irving Raymond, eds. Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. See especially doc. 17 (Ibn Hawqal, Book of Routes and Kingdoms, p.52-54).
- Rosenwein, Barbara, ed. Reading the Middle Ages: Sources from Europe, Byzantium, and the Islamic World. 3rd edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2018. Document 4.1 (Al-Tabari, “The Defeat of the Zanj Revolt,” p.171-176).
- Ali, Kecia. Marriage and Slavery in Early Islam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.
- Anderson, Glaire. “Concubines, Eunuchs and Patronage in Early Islamic Córdoba.” In Reassessing the Roles of Women as “Makers” of Medieval Art and Architecture, vol. 2, edited by Therese Martin, 633–670. Leiden: Brill, 2012.
- Bacharach, Jere L. “African Military Slaves in the Medieval Middle East: The Cases of Iraq (869–955) and Egypt (868–1171).” International Journal of Middle East Studies 13 (1981): 471–495.
- Barton, Simon. Conquerors, Brides, and Concubines: Interfaith Relations and Social Power in Medieval Iberia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.
- Brand, Charles M. “Two Byzantine Treatises on Taxation.” Traditio 25 (1969): 35-60.
- Brink, Stefan. “Slavery in the Viking Age.” In The Viking World, edited by Stefan Brink and Neil Price, 49-56. London: Routledge, 2008.
- Chatterjee, Indrani, and Richard Eaton, eds. Slavery and South Asian History. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2006.
- Cho, Bup-Jong. “Studies on the Kingship of Silla and System of Nobi” (신라왕권과노비제). The Research Institute For SILLA Culture: Dongguk University, 22 (2003). [In Korean]
- Constable, Olivia R. “Muslim Spain and Mediterranean Slavery: The Medieval Slave Trade as an Aspect of Muslim-Christian Relations,” in Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000-1500, edited by Scott Waugh and Peter Diehl, 264-84. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
- Coupland, Simon. “The Vikings on the Continent in Myth and History,” History 88, no. 290 (2003): 186–203.
- Fauvelle-Aymar, François-Xavier. The Golden Rhinoceros: Histories of the African Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2018. See especially chapter 4.
- Fontaine, Janel M. “Early Medieval Slave-Trading in the Archaeological Record: Comparative Methodologies.” Early Medieval Europe 25, no. 4 (2017): 466–488.
- Gronenborn, Detlef. “Kanem-Borno: A Brief Summary of the History and Archaeology of an Empire of the Central bilad al-sudan.” In West Africa During the Atlantic Slave Trade: Archaeological Perspectives, edited by Christopher DeCorse, 101-130. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 2001.
- Haour, Anne. “The Early Medieval Slave Trade of the Central Sahel: Archaeological and Historical Considerations.” In Slavery in Africa: Archaeology and Memory, edited by Paul J. Lane and Kevin C. MacDonald, 61-78. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Holm, Poul. “The Slave Trade of Dublin, Ninth to Twelfth Centuries.” Peritia 5 (1986): 317–45.
- Hong, Sung-gi. Research on Koryo Nobis (고려시대의노비연구). (Sugang University Press, 1980). [In Korean]
- Karras, Ruth M. Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
- Kim, Chong-sun. “The Slaves in the Silla Village Register.” (正倉院所藏新羅帳籍에나타난奴婢) The Korean Historical Review 123 (1989). [In Korean]
- Kohler, Timothy A. and Kathryn Kramer Turner. “Raiding for Women in the Pre-Hispanic Northern Pueblo Southwest? A Pilot Examination.” Current Anthropology, 47, no. 6 (2006): 1035-45.
- Kolias-Dermitzaki, Athina. “Some Remarks on the Fate of Prisoners of War in Byzantium (Ninth-Tenth Centuries).” In La liberazione dei “captivi” tra cristianità e islam: Oltre la crociata e il ĝihād: Tolleranza e servizio umanitario: Atti del Congresso Interdisciplinare di Studi Storici (Roma, 16-19 settembre 1998), edited by G. Cipollone, 583–620. Vatican City: Archivo Segreto Vaticano, 2000.
- Korpela, Jukka Jari. Slaves from the North: Finns and Karelians in the East European Slave Trade, 900–1600. Studies in Global Slavery 5. Leiden: Brill, 2018.
- Lemerle, Paul. The Agrarian History of Byzantium: From the Seventh to the Twelfth Century – Sources and Problems. Galway: Galway University Press, 1979.
- Lim, Young-ae. “The ‘Lion and Kunlun Slave’ Image: A Motif of Buddhist Art Found in Unified Silla Funerary Sculpture.” Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 18, no. 2 (2018).
- Mattingly, David, and Martin Sterry. “Zuwila and Fazzan in the Seventh to Tenth Centuries: The Emergence of a New Trading Center.” In The Aghlabids and their Neighbours: Art and Material Culture in Ninth-Century North Africa, edited by Glaire D. Anderson, Corisande Fenwick and Mariam Rosser-Owen, 551-572. Leiden: Brill, 2018.
- Mattson, Ingrid. “A Believing Slave is Better Than an Unbeliever: Status and Community in Early Islamic Society and Law.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 1999.
- McCormick, Michael. “New Light on the ‘Dark Ages’: How the Slave Trade Fuelled the Carolingian Economy,” Past and Present 177 (2002): 17–54.
- Myrne, Pernilla. “Slaves for Pleasure in Arabic Sex Manuals from the Tenth to the Twelfth Centuries,” Journal of Global Slavery 4:2 (2019), 196-225.
- Naumann, Elise et al., “Slaves as Burial Gifts in Viking Age Norway? Evidence from Stable Isotope and Ancient DNA Analyses,” Journal of Archaeological Science 41 (2014): 533–40.
- Pelteret, David. Slavery in Early Medieval England: From the Reign of Alfred until the Twelfth Century. Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 1995.
- Perry, Craig. “The Daily Life of Slaves and the Global Reach of Slavery.” Ph. D. diss., Emory University, 2014.
- Raffield, Ben. “The Slave Markets of the Viking World: Comparative Perspectives on an ‘Invisible Archaeology,’” Slavery and Abolition 40, no. 4 (2019): 682–705.
- Raffield, Ben. “Raiding, Slaving, and the Economies of Unfreedom in the Viking Diaspora,”SAA Archaeological Record 18, no. 3 (May 2018): 32–34.
- Richardson, Kristina. “Singing Slave Girls (Qiyan) of the Abbasid Court in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries.” In Children in Slavery through the Ages, edited by Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph C. Miller, 105-118. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2009.
- Rio, Alice. Slavery After Rome, 500-1100. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
- Roslund, Mats. Guests in the House: Cultural Transmission between Slavs and Scandinavians 900 to 1300 AD, trans. Alan Crozier. The Northern World 33 (Leiden: Brill, 2007).
- Seaver, Kristen A. “Thralls and Queens: Female Slavery in the Medieval Norse Atlantic.” In Women and Slavery: Africa, the Indian Ocean, and the Medieval North Atlantic, edited by Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph C. Miller, 147-167. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007.
- Tung, Tiffiny. “Violence Against Women: Differential Treatment of Local and Foreign Females in the Heartland of the Wari Empire, Peru.” In The Bioarchaeology of Violence, ed. Debra Martin, Ryan Harrod, and Ventura Pérez, 180-198. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2012.
- Tung, Tiffany A. and Kelly J Knudson. “Identifying locals, migrants, and captives in the Wari Heartland: A bioarchaeological and biogeochemical study of human remains from Conchopata, Peru.” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 30, no. 3, (Sept 2011): 247-61.
- Wyatt, David. Slaves and Warriors in Medieval Britain and Ireland, 800-1200. Leiden: Brill, 2009.
- Wyatt, Don J. The Blacks of Premodern China. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.
- Wyatt, Don J. “Cargoes Human and Otherwise: Chinese Commerce in East African Goods During the Middle Period.” In Early Global Interconnectivity Across the Indian Ocean World, Volume I: Commercial Structures and Exchanges, edited by Angela Schottenhammer. New York; Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.
Hannah Barker, Catherine Cameron, Matthew Delvaux, Matthew Gordon, Kim Bok-rae, Paul Lane, Noel Lenski, Craig Perry, Ben Raffield, Henriette Rødland, John Verano, Rebecca Winer, Don Wyatt