Primary Sources On This Website

Primary Sources Elsewhere

  • Hansen, Valerie. The Silk Road: A New History with Documents. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. See especially docs. 11F (“Adoption, Enslavement, and Milk Payments,” p.89-90), 20A (“Sogdian-Language Contract for the Purchase of a Slave Girl,” p.181-182).
  • Ibn Battuta. The Travels of Ibn Battuta, AD 1325-1354: Volumes I-V. Translated by C.F. Beckingham and H.A.R. Gibb. The Hakluyt Society, Second Series. London: Routledge, 2016. 
  • Ibn Faḍlān, “Mission to the Volga.” In Two Arabic Travel Books, edited by Philip Kennedy and Shawkat Toorawa, 165-298. New York: New York University Press, 2014. An excerpt is doc. 60 in Angus A. Somerville and R. Andrew McDonald, The Viking Age: A Reader, 3rd edition (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2020). (10th century)
  • Schiltberger, Johann. The Bondage and Travels of Johann Schiltberger, A Native of Bavaria, in Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1396-1427. Translated by J. Buchan Telfer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Reprint of the 1879 edition. (14th and 15th century)
  • Tafur, Pero. Travels and Adventures, 1435-1439. Translated by Malcolm Letts. London: Routledge, 1926. (15th century)
  • Vernadsky, George, ed. Medieval Russian Laws. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979. (11th century)

Selected Bibliography

  • Allsen, Thomas. Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Amitai, Reuven, and Christoph Cluse, eds. Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean (c. 1000-1500 CE). Turnhout: Brepols, 2017.
  • Barker, Hannah. That Most Precious Merchandise: The Mediterranean Trade in Black Sea Slaves, 1260-1500. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019.
  • Biran, Michal. “Encounters Among Enemies: Preliminary Remarks on Captives in Mongol Eurasia.” Archivum Eurasia Medii Aevi 21 (2015): 27-42.
  • Fontaine, Janel M. “Early Medieval Slave-Trading in the Archaeological Record: Comparative Methodologies.” Early Medieval Europe 25, no. 4 (2017): 466–488.
  • Golden, Peter. “The Terminology of Slavery and Servitude in Medieval Turkic.” In Studies on Central Asian History in Honor of Yuri Bregel, ed. Devin DeWeese, 27-56. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.
  • Hellie, Richard. Slavery in Russia, 1450-1725. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
  • Irinchin, Yekemingghadai. “Regarding the Mongol Bo’ol in the 11th and 12th Centuries.” In Chinese Scholars on Inner Asia, ed. Xin Luo and Roger Covey, 315-330. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2012.
  • Jackson, Peter. The Mongols and the Islamic World: From Conquest to Conversion. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2017.
  • Jackson, Peter. The Mongols and the West, 1221-1410, 2nd edn. London; New York: Routledge, 2018.
  • Jankowiak, Marek. “What Does the Slave Trade in the Saqaliba Tell Us about Early Islamic Slavery?” International Journal of Middle East Studies 40, no. 1 (2017): 169-72.
  • Kizilov, Mikhail. “Slaves, Money Lenders, and Prisoner Guards: The Jews and the Trade in Slaves and Captives in the Crimean Khanate.” Journal of Jewish Studies 58, no. 2 (2007): 189-210.
  • Prawdin, Michael. The Mongol Empire: Its Rise and Legacy. Crows Nest, New South Wales, Australia: Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1940. Repr., New Brunswick, NJ; London: AldineTransaction, 2006.
  • Witzenrath, Christoph. Eurasian Slavery, Ransom and Abolition in World History, 1200-1860. Farnham: Ashgate, 2015.


Hannah Barker, Matthew Delvaux, Matthew S. Gordon, Don J. Wyatt