Primary Sources On this Website

Primary Sources Elsewhere

  • Adomnán of Iona, The Life of St. Columba. See especially “Concerning the illness with which the Druid Broichan was visited for his detention of a female slave, and his cure on her release.” Also Adomnán of Iona, The Life of St. Columba, trans. Richard Sharpe (London: Penguin Classics, 1995), 181-182. (7th century)
  • Agobard of Lyon, On the Baptism of Slaves Belonging to Jews (9th century)
  • Allen, S.J. and Emilie Amt, eds. The Crusades: A Reader. 2nd edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014. See especially docs. 71 (Nikolaus von Jeroschin on the Prussian Crusades, p.270-275), 80 (Siete Partidas, p.306-312).
  • Amt, Emilie, ed. Women’s Lives in Medieval Europe: A Sourcebook. 2nd edition. London: Routledge, 2010. See especially doc. 34 (Anglo-Saxon Wills, p.114-117).
  • Aquinas, Thomas. Summa of Theology, Q.96, “Dominion among Men in the State of Innocence” and Supplement, Q.52, “Is Slavery an Impediment to Marriage?” In St. Thomas Aquinas on Politics and Ethics, edited by Paul Sigmund, 38-39 and 82-83. New York: W.W. Norton, 1988. (13th century)
  • Brucker, Gene, ed. The Society of Renaissance Florence: A Documentary Study. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1971. See especially docs. 106 (Slavery Legalized, p.222), 107 (The Search for Slaves, p.223), 108 (Christians Forced Into Slavery, p.223-224), 109 (The Tribulations of a Slave Girl, p.224-228).
  • Cain Adamnain: An Old-Irish Treatise on the Law of Adamnan (9th century)
  • DeVries, Kelly, and Michael Livingston. Medieval Warfare: A Reader. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2019. See especially doc. 120 (Enslaving Noble Hostages).
  • Domesday Book: A Complete Translation. Trans. Ann Williams and G.H. Martin. London: Penguin, 2003. (11th century) Slaves are recorded more clearly in some shires than others. I usually use Herefordshire.
  • The Formularies of Angers and Marculf: Two Merovingian Legal Handbooks, ed. Alice Rio. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2008.
  • Gregory of Tours, “Enslaving Noble Families”
  • Jansen, Katherine, Joanna Drell, and Frances Andrews. Medieval Italy: Texts in Translation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009. See especially docs. 47 (The Laws of Roger II, p.175-186), 112 (Will of Docibilis I of Gaeta, p.501-515).
  • Lopez, Robert, and Irving Raymond, eds. Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. See especially docs. 7 (Pactum Sicardi, p.33-35), 13 (Slave Sale Contract at Milan, p.45-46), 44 (Slave Sale Contract at Genoa, p.115-116), 56 (Brokerage Fees at Narbonne, p.130-135), 156 (A Byzantine Complaint Against Venice, p.314-317), 195 (News from Genoa, p.400-403).
  • Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim and Jewish Sources, ed. Olivia Remie Constable. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. See especially docs. 3 (Third Council of Toledo, p.12-20), 18 (Ibn Hazm, “On Forgetting a Beloved,” p.103-106), 37 (Statutes of Leon and Girona, p.211-220), 44 (“Hadith Bayad wa Riyad,” p.252-259), 55 (“Everyday Life in the Crown of Aragon,” p.310-321), 65 (“Slavery in Castile: Siete Partidas,” p.393-398), and 83 (“Muslims and Christians in Valencia,” p.491-495).
  • Mihailović, Konstantin. Memoirs of a Janissary. Edited by Svat Soucek, translated by Benjamin Stolz. Princeton: Markus Wiener, 2011.
  • Rodriguez, Jarbel. Muslim and Christian Contact in the Middle Ages: A Reader. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2015. See especially docs. 3 (Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius, p.7-9), 42 (Las Siete Partidas, p.221-224), 47 (Truce Between the Turks and the Genoese Safeguarding the Rights of Merchants, p.236-237), 89 (Andres Bernaldez, The Taking and Freeing of Captives in Iberia, p.433-434).
  • Rosenwein, Barbara, ed. Reading the Middle Ages: Sources from Europe, Byzantium, and the Islamic World. 3rd edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2018. See especially docs. 2.10 (Life of St. Balthild, p.88-92), 3.3 (A Contract of Sale, p.114)
  • St. Patrick’s Confessio (5th century)
  • Salic Law (6th century), excerpts. In Readings in Medieval History, edited by Patrick Geary, 122-128. 4th edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.
  • Schiltberger, Johann. The Bondage and Travels of Johann Schiltberger, A Native of Bavaria, in Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1396-1427. Translated by J. Buchan Telfer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Reprint of the 1879 edition.
  • Somerville, Angus A., and R. Andrew McDonald. The Viking Age: A Reader. 3rd edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2020. See especially docs. 5 (Hoskuld Buys a Slave), 6 (Slave Revolts), 7 (How the Hersir Erling Treated His Slaves), 43 (The Life of Saint Findan).

Selected Bibliography

  • Barker, Hannah. That Most Precious Merchandise: The Mediterranean Trade in Black Sea Slaves, 1260-1500. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019.
  • Barton, Simon. Conquerors, Brides, and Concubines: Interfaith Relations and Social Power in Medieval Iberia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.
  • Bensch, Stephen P. “From Prizes of War to Domestic Merchandise: The Changing Face of Slavery in Catalonia and Aragon, 1000-1300.” Viator 25 (1994): 63-93.
  • Blumenthal, Debra. “Sclaves molt fortes, senyors invalts: Sex, lies, and paternity suits in late medieval Spain.” In Women, Texts and Authority in the Early Modern Spanish World, edited by M. Vicente and L. Corteguera. Aldershot, England: Ashgate Press, 2003.
  • Blumenthal, Debra. Enemies & Familiars: Slavery and Mastery in Fifteenth-Century Valencia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009.
  • Brackett, John. “Race and Rulership: Alessandro de’ Medici, First Medici Duke of Florence, 1529-1537,” in Black Africans in Renaissance Europe, edited by T.F. Earle and K.J.P. Lowe, 303-325. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • Brink, Stefan, “Slavery in the Viking Age.” In The Viking World, edited by Stefan Brink and Neil Price, 49-56. London: Routledge, 2008.
  • Burns, Robert I. “Interactive Slave Operations: Muslim-Christian-Jewish Contracts in Thirteenth-Century Barcelona.” Medieval Encounters 5, no. 2 (1999): 135-155.
  • Cavaciocchi, Simonetta, ed. Serfdom and Slavery in the European Economy, 11th – 18th Centuries. Florence: Firenze University Press, 2014. [chapters in various languages]
  • Constable, Olivia Remie. “Spain and Mediterranean Slavery: The Medieval Slave Trade as an Aspect of Muslim-Christian Relations.” In Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000-1500, edited by Scott L. Waugh and Peter D. Diehl, 264-284. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 
  • Coupland, Simon. “The Vikings on the Continent in Myth and History,” History 88, no. 290 (2003): 186-203.
  • Davis, David B. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
  • Delvaux, Matthew C. “Transregional Slave Networks of the Northern Arc, 700–900 C.E.” Ph.D. dissertation, Boston College, 2019.
  • Dockès, Pierre. Medieval Slavery and Liberation. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
  • Ebenesersdóttir, S. Sunna et al., “Ancient Genomes from Iceland Reveal the Making of a Human Population.” Science 360, no. 6392 (2018): 1028–32.
  • Epstein, Steven A. Speaking of Slavery: Color, Ethnicity, and Human Bondage in Italy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.
  • Fontaine, Janel M. “Early Medieval Slave-Trading in the Archaeological Record: Comparative Methodologies.” Early Medieval Europe 25, no. 4 (2017): 466–88.
  • Freed, John. “The Origins of the European Nobility: The Problem of the Ministerials.” Viator 7 (1976): 211-241.
  • Fynn-Paul, Jeffrey. “Empire, Monotheism and Slavery in the Greater Mediterranean Region from Antiquity to the Early Modern Era.” Past and Present 205 (2009): 3-40.
  • Gillingham, John. “Women, Children, and the Profits of War,” in Gender and Historiography: Studies in the Earlier Middle Ages in Honour of Pauline Stafford, edited by Janet Nelson, Susan Reynolds, and Susan Johns, 61-74. London: Institute of Historical Research, 2012.
  • Glancy, Jennifer. Slavery in Early Christianity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Goldenberg, David. The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.
  • Goodman, Jack. “Slavery and Manumission in Fourteenth-Century Palermo.” Ph.D. diss., Western Michigan University, 2017.
  • Guérin, Sara M. “Ivory and the Ties that Bind.” In Whose Middle Ages? Teachable Moments for an Ill-Used Past, edited by Andrew Albin, Mary C. Erler, Thomas O’Donnell, Nicholas L. Paul, and Nina Rowe, 140-153. New York: Fordham University Press, 2019.
  • Harper, Kyle. Slavery in the Late Roman World, AD 275-425. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  • Harill, J. Albert. The Manumission of Slaves in Early Christianity. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1995.
  • Helmholz, R.H. “The Law of Slavery and the European Ius Commune.” In The Legal Understanding of Slavery: From the Historical to the Contemporary, edited by Jean Allain, 17-39. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
  • Henning, Joachim. “Strong Rulers – Weak Economy? Rome, the Carolingians and the Archaeology of Slavery in the First Millennium AD.” In The Long Morning of Medieval Europe: New Directions in Early Medieval Studies, edited by Jennifer R. Davis and Michael McCormick, 33-53. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.
  • Herder, Michelle. “Serving in the Cloister: Slaves, Servants, and Discipline in Late Medieval Nunneries,” in Boundaries in the Medieval and Wider World: Essays in Honour of Paul Freedman, edited by Thomas Barton, Susan McDonough, Sara McDougall, and Matthew Wranovix, 137-52. Turnhout: Brepols, 2017.
  • Hershenzon, Daniel. “Towards a Connected History of Bondage in the Mediterranean: Recent Trends in the Field.” History Compass 15 (2017): 1-13.
  • Hershenzon, Daniel. The Captive Sea: Slavery, Communication and Commerce in Early Modern Spain and the Mediterranean. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018.
  • Holm, Poul. “The Slave Trade of Dublin, Ninth to Twelfth Centuries.” Perita 5 (1986): 317–45.
  • Karras, Ruth Mazo. Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia, Yale Historical Publications 135. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
  • Karras, Ruth Mazo. “Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age.” Scandinavian Studies 62, no. 2 (1990): 141–62.
  • Klapisch-Zuber, Christiane. “Women Servants in Florence during the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries,” in Women and Work in Preindustrial Europe, edited by Barbara Hanawalt, 56-80. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.
  • Korpela, Jukka Jari. Slaves from the North: Finns and Karelians in the East European Slave Trade, 900–1600. Studies in Global Slavery 5. Leiden: Brill, 2018.
  • Labovitz, Gail. “More Slave Women, More Lewdness: Freedom and Honor in Rabbinic Constructions of Female Sexuality.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 28:2 (2012): 69-87.
  • Lowe, Kate. “The Lives of African Slaves and People of African Descent in Renaissance Europe,” in Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe, edited by Joaneath Spicer, 13-34. Baltimore: Walters Art Museum, 2012.
  • McCormick, Michael. “New Light on the ‘Dark Ages’: How the Slave Trade Fuelled the Carolingian Economy.” Past and Present 177 (2002): 17–54.
  • McKee, Sally. “Domestic Slavery in Renaissance Italy.” Slavery & Abolition 29 (2008): 305-326.
  • McKee, Sally. “The Implications of Slave Women’s Sexual Service in Italy.” In Unfreie Arbeit Ökonomische und kulturgeschichtliche Perspektiven, edited by M. Erden Kabadayi and Tobias Reichardt, Hildesheim: Georg Ulms Verlag, 2007.
  • Meyerson, Mark. “Slavery and the Social Order: Mudejars and Christians in the Kingdom of Valencia.” Medieval Encounters 1, no. 1 (1995): 144-73.
  • Naumann, Elise et al., “Slaves as Burial Gifts in Viking Age Norway? Evidence from Stable Isotope and Ancient DNA Analyses.” Journal of Archaeological Science 41 (2014): 533–40.
  • Painter, Nell Irvin. The History of White People. New York: W.W. Norton, 2010.
  • Pelteret, David. Slavery in Early Medieval England: From the Reign of Alfred until the Twelfth Century. Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 1995.
  • Perry, Matthew J. Gender, Manumission, and the Roman Freedwoman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
  • Phillips, William D. Slavery in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2014.
  • Phillips, William D. Slavery from Roman Times to the Early Transatlantic Trade. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985.
  • Raffield, Ben. “The Slave Markets of the Viking World: Comparative Perspectives on an ‘Invisible Archaeology.’” Slavery and Abolition 40, no. 4 (2019): 682–705.
  • Raffield, Ben. “Raiding, Slaving, and the Economies of Unfreedom in the Viking Diaspora.” SAA Archaeological Record 18, no. 3 (2018): 32–34.
  • Randsborg, Klavs. “The Study of Slavery in Northern Europe: An Archaeological Approach.” Acta Archaeologica 55 (1984): 155–60.
  • Rio, Alice. “Self-Sale and Voluntary Entry into Unfreedom, 300-1100.” Journal of Social History, 45, no. 3 (2012): 661-685.
  • Rio, Alice. Slavery After Rome, 500-1100. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
  • Rodriguez, Jarbel. Captives and their Saviors in the Medieval Crown of Aragon. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2007.
  • Rosen, Mark. “Pietro Tacca’s Quattro Mori and the Conditions of Slavery in Early Seicento Tuscany.” Art Bulletin 97, no. 1 (2015): 34-57.
  • Roslund, Mats. Guests on the House: Cultural Transmission between Slavs and Scandinavians 900 to 1300 AD, trans. Alan Crozier. The Northern World 33. Leiden: Brill, 2007.
  • Salicrú i Lluch, Roser. “Luck and Contingency? Piracy, Human Booty and Human-Trafficking in the Late Medieval Western Mediterranean.” In Seeraub im Mittelmeerraum Piraterie, Korsarentum und maritime Gewalt von der Antike bis zur Neuzeit, edited by Nikolas Jausbert, vol. 3, 347–362. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2013.
  • Schiel, Juliane. “‘Slaves’ Religious Choice in Renaissance Venice: Applying Insights from Missionary Narratives to Slave Baptism Records.” Archivio veneto 146 (2015): 23-45.
  • Schiel, Juliane, and Stefan Hanß, eds. Mediterranean Slavery Revisited (500-1800), Neue Perspektiven auf mediterrane Sklaverei (500-1800). Zürich: Chronos Verlag, 2014.
  • Seaver, Kristen A. “Thralls and Queens: Female Slavery in the Medieval Norse Atlantic.” In Women and Slavery: Africa, the Indian Ocean, and the Medieval North Atlantic, edited by Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph C. Miller, 147-167. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007.
  • Stuard, Susan Mosher. “Ancillary Evidence for the Decline of Medieval Slavery.” Past and Present 149 (1995): 3-28.
  • Winer, Rebecca Lynn. “Conscripting the Breast: Lactation, Slavery and Salvation in the Realms of Aragon and Kingdom of Majorca, c. 1250–1300.” Journal of Medieval History 34:2 (2008): 164-184. 
  • Winer, Rebecca Lynn. “Jews, Slave-Holding, and Gender in the Crown of Aragon circa 1250-1492.” In Cautivas y esclavas: el tráfico humano en el Mediterráneo, edited by Aurelia Martín Casares and María Cristina Delaigue Séris, 43-60. Granada: University of Granada, 2017.
  • Wyatt, David. Slaves and Warriors in Medieval Britain and Ireland, 800-1200. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

Contributors

Hannah Barker, Debra Blumenthal, Matthew Delvaux, Janel Fontaine, Matthew S. Gordon, Leia Hall, Rena Lauer, Noel Lenski, Maria Olsen, Pamela Patton, Joshua Robinaugh, Rebecca Winer, Angela Zhang, Michelle Ziegler