Primary Sources On This Website

Primary Sources Elsewhere

Selected Bibliography

  • Chang Hsing-lang [Zhang Xinglang]. “The Importation of Negro Slaves to China under the T’ang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907).” Bulletin of the Catholic University of Peking 7 (1930): 37-59.
  • Cho, Bup-Jong. “Studies on the Kingship of Silla and System of Nobi” (신라왕권과노비제). The Research Institute For SILLA Culture: Dongguk University, 22 (2003). [In Korean]
  • De Sousa, Lúcio. The Portuguese Slave Trade in Early Modern Japan: Merchants, Jesuits and Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Slaves. Leiden: Brill, 2018.
  • Dikötter, Frank. The Discourse of Race in Modern China. New York; London: Oxford University Press, 2015. 
  • Duyvendak, J. J. L. China’s Discovery of Africa: Lectures Given at the University of London on January 22 and 23, 1947. London: Arthur Probsthain, 1949.
  • Filesi, Teobaldo. China and Africa in the Middle Ages, tr. David L. Morison. London: Frank Cass, Central Asian Research Centre, 1972. 
  • Hamilton, Scott. The Stolen Island: Searching for ‘Ata. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books, 2016.
  • Hirth, Friedrich. “Early Chinese Notices of East African Territories.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 30, no. 1 (1909): 46-47. 
  • Hong, Sung-gi. Research on Koryo Nobis (고려시대의노비연구). (Sugang University Press, 1980). [In Korean]
  • Horne, Gerald. The White Pacific: U.S. Imperialism and Black Slavery in the South Seas after the Civil War. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007.
  • Jackson, Peter. The Mongols and the Islamic World: From Conquest to Conversion. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2017.
  • Jackson, Peter. The Mongols and the West, 1221-1410, 2nd edn. London; New York: Routledge, 2018.
  • Jayasuriya, Shihan de Silva and Jean-Pierre Angenot, eds. Uncovering the History of Africans in Asia. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2008.
  • Junker, Laura L. “The Impact of Captured Women on Cultural Transmission in Contact-Period Philippine Slave-Raiding Chiefdoms.” In Invisible Citizens: Captives and Their Consequences, edited by Catherine M. Cameron, 110-37. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2008.
  • Kim, Bok-rae. “Nobi: A Korean System of Slavery.” In The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia, ed. Gwyn Campbell, 153-165. London: Frank Cass, 2004.
  • Kim, Bok-rae. “A Microhistorical Analysis of Korean Nobis through the Prism of the Lawsuit of Damulsari.” In What is a Slave Society? The Practice of Slavery in Global Perspective, ed. Noel Lenski and Catherine Cameron, 403-429. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.
  • Kim, Chong-sun. “The Slaves in the Silla Village Register.” (正倉院所藏新羅帳籍에나타난奴婢) The Korean Historical Review 123 (1989). [In Korean]
  • Korean Historical Association (歷史學會). Nobi, Serf and Slave (노비·농노·노예). Seoul: Ilchogak, 1998. [In Korean]
  • Lee, In-cheol. “Slave and the Role of Slave Labor in the Ancient Korea,” (한국 고대사회에서 노비와 노비노동의 역할) The Journal of Korean Ancient History 29 (2003). [In Korean]
  • Lhim, Hak-Seong. “The Changes of the Nobi/奴婢 System and the Lives of Nobi in the Joseon Dynasty.” (조선시대 奴婢制의 推移와 노비의 존재 양태) Korea Historical Folklore Institute 41 (2013). [In Korean]
  • Lim, Young-ae. “The ‘Lion and Kunlun Slave’ Image: A Motif of Buddhist Art Found in Unified Silla Funerary Sculpture.” Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 18, no. 2 (2018).
  • Nelson, Thomas. “Slavery in Medieval Japan.” Monumenta Nipponica 59 (2004): 463-492.
  • Petrie, Hazel. “Decoding the colours of rank in Maori society: what might they tell us about perceptions of war captives?” The Journal of the Polynesian Society 120, no. 3 (2011): 211-239.
  • Petrie, Hazel. Outcasts of the Gods? The Struggle Over Slavery in Maori New Zealand. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2015.
  • Pratt, Keith. Everlasting Flower: A History of Korea. London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2006.
  • Reid, Anthony, ed. Slavery, Bondage, and Dependency in Southeast Asia. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1983.
  • Whitfield, Susan. Silk, Slaves, and Stupas: Material Culture of the Silk Road. Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2018. 
  • Wilensky, Julie. “The Magical Kunlun and ‘Devil Slaves’: Chinese Perceptions of Dark-skinned People and Africa before 1500.” Sino-Platonic Papers 122 (July 2002): 1-51.
  • Wilkinson, Endymion. Chinese History: A New Manual, 4th ed. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 
  • Wyatt, Don J. The Blacks of Premodern China. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.
  • Wyatt, Don J. “A Certain Whiteness of Being: Chinese Perceptions of Self by the Beginning of European Contact.” In Race and Racism in Modern East Asia: Western and Eastern Constructions, edited by Rotem Kowner and Walter Demel. Modern East Asia in a Global Historical Perspective. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2013; paperback 2014. 
  • Wyatt, Don J. “The Image of the Black in Chinese Art.” In The Image of the Black in African and Asian Art, ed. David Bindman, Suzanne Preston Blier, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. with Karen C. C. Dalton. Cambridge, MA; London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press/Hutchins Center for African and African American Research, 2017.
  • Wyatt, Don J. “Cargoes Human and Otherwise: Chinese Commerce in East African Goods During the Middle Period.” In Early Global Interconnectivity Across the Indian Ocean World, Volume I: Commercial Structures and Exchanges, edited by Angela Schottenhammer. New York; Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019. 
  • Wyatt, Don J. “Premodern Africans in China,” Oxford African American Studies Center (, 2020).


Hannah Barker, Catherine Cameron, Richard Eaton, Toby Harper, Kim Bok-rae, Don Wyatt