Primary Sources On This Website
- Bobali (9th century)
- Medieval Slavery in Zuwīla: Archaeological and Textual Sources (10th-11th century, 14th century)
- Kilwa: Slavery on the East African Coast (10th century, 14th century)
- A Former Slave Deceives Ibn Khalīl (15th century)
Primary Sources Elsewhere
- Almeida, Manuel de. Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593-1646, being Extracts from The History of High Ethiopia or Abassia by Manoel de Almeida. Translated and edited by C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford. London: Hakluyt Society, 1954.
- Alvares, Francisco. The Prester John of the Indies: a True Relation of the Lands of the Prester John, being the Narrative of the Portuguese Embassy to Ethiopia in 1520, volume 1. Translated by Lord Stanley of Alderley, revised and edited by C.E. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society, 1961.
- Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History. Edited by Nehemia Levtzion and J.F.P. Hopkins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. See especially al-Bakri (p.62-87) and Ibn Battuta (p.279-303).
- Ethiopian Itineraries circa 1400-1524, Including Those Collected by Alessandro Zorzi at Venice in the Years 1519-1524. Edited by O.G.S. Crawford. Hakluyt Society, Second Series, no. 109. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1958.
- Freeman-Grenville, G. S. P. The East African Coast: Select Documents from the First to the Earlier Nineteenth Century. 2nd ed. London: Rex Collings, 1975.
- Hunwick, John O., and Eve Troutt Powell, eds. The African Diaspora in the Mediterranean Lands of Islam. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2002.
- Ibn Battuta. The Travels of Ibn Battuta, AD 1325-1354: Volumes I-V. Translated by C.F. Beckingham and H.A.R. Gibb. The Hakluyt Society, Second Series. London: Routledge, 2016.
- Irwin, Graham W. Africans Abroad: A Documentary History of the Black Diaspora in Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean During the Age of Slavery. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977.
- Leo Africanus. The History and Description of Africa. 3 vols. Edited by Robert Brown. London: Hakluyt Society, 1896.
- Lewis, Bernard, ed. Islam: From the Prophet Muhammad to the Capture of Constantinople. 3 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. See especially 2:22-27 (Mahmud Ka’ti, The Pilgrimage of Mansa Musa).
- Lopez, Robert, and Irving Raymond, eds. Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. See especially doc. 17 (Ibn Hawqal, Book of Routes and Kingdoms, p.52-54).
- Peabody, Sue, and Keila Grinberg, eds. Slavery, Freedom, and the Law in the Atlantic World: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s 2007. See especially doc. 1 (The Code Noir, 1685).
- Tegegne, Habtamu. “The Edict of King Gälawdéwos against the Illegal Slave Trade in Christians: Ethiopia, 1548.” The Medieval Globe 2 (2016): 73-114.
- Abir, Mordechai. Ethiopia and the Red Sea: The Rise and Decline of the Solomonic Dynasty and Muslim-European Rivalry in the Region. London: Frank Cass, 1980.
- Alexander, J. “Islam, Archaeology and Slavery in Africa.” World Archaeology 33 (2001): 44-60.
- Austen, Ralph A. “The Mediterranean Islamic Slave Trade out of Africa: A Tentative Census.” Slavery and Abolition 13, no. 1 (1992): 214-248.
- Bennett, Herman. African Kings and Black Slaves: Sovereignty and Dispossession in the Early Modern Atlantic. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019.
- Campbell, Gwyn. “East Africa in the Early Indian Ocean World Slave Trade: The Zanj Revolt Reconsidered.” In Early Exchange between Africa and the Wider Indian Ocean World, edited by Gwyn Cambpell, 275–303. Cham: Palgrave, 2016.
- Duyvendak, J. J. L. China’s Discovery of Africa: Lectures Given at the University of London on January 22 and 23, 1947. London: Arthur Probsthain, 1949.
- Edwards, David N. “Slavery and Slaving in the Medieval and Post-Medieval Kingdoms of the Middle Nile.” In Slavery in Africa: Archaeology and Memory, edited by Paul J. Lane and Kevin C. MacDonald, 79-108. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
- El Hamel, Chouki. Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
- Fauvelle-Aymar, François-Xavier. The Golden Rhinoceros: Histories of the African Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2018. See especially chapters 3, 4, and 30.
- Filesi, Teobaldo. China and Africa in the Middle Ages, tr. David L. Morison. London: Frank Cass, Central Asian Research Centre, 1972.
- Finneran, Niall. “The Invisible Archaeology of Slavery in the Horn of Africa?” In Slavery in Africa: Archaeology and Memory, edited by Paul J. Lane and Kevin C. MacDonald, 225-249. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Gronenborn, Detlef. “Kanem-Borno: A Brief Summary of the History and Archaeology of an Empire of the Central bilad al-sudan.” In West Africa During the Atlantic Slave Trade: Archaeological Perspectives, edited by Christopher DeCorse, 101-130. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 2001.
- Haour, Anne. “The Early Medieval Slave Trade of the Central Sahel: Archaeological and Historical Considerations.” In Slavery in Africa: Archaeology and Memory, edited by Paul J. Lane and Kevin C. MacDonald, 61-78. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Hunwick, John O. “Black Slaves in the Mediterranean World: Introduction to a Neglected Aspect of the African Diaspora.” Slavery & Abolition 13, no. 1 (1992): 5–38.
- Kusimba, Chapurukha. “Archaeology of Slavery in East Africa.” African Archaeological Review 21 (2004): 59-88.
- Lane, Paul J. and Kevin C. MacDonald. “Introduction: Slavery, Social Revolutions, and Enduring Memories.” In Slavery in Africa: Archaeology and Memory, edited by Paul J. Lane and Kevin C. MacDonald, 1-22. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Lane, P. J. “Slavery and Slave Trading in Eastern Africa: Exploring the Intersections of Historical Sources and Archaeological Evidence.” In Slavery in Africa: Archaeology and Memory, ed. P.J. Lane and K.C. MacDonald, 281-314. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Lovejoy, Paul E. Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. 3rd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. See especially chapters 1 and 2, p. 1-45.
- Lowe, Kate. “The Lives of African Slaves and People of African Descent in Renaissance Europe,” in Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe, edited by Joaneath Spicer, 13-34. Baltimore: Walters Art Museum, 2012.
- MacEachern, Scott. “State Formation and Enslavement in the Southern Lake Chad Basin.” In West Africa During the Atlantic Slave Trade: Archaeological Perspectives, edited by Christopher DeCorse, 131-151. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 2001.
- Marcus, Harold G. History of Ethiopia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
- Mattingly, David, and Martin Sterry. “Zuwila and Fazzan in the Seventh to Tenth Centuries: The Emergence of a New Trading Center.” In The Aghlabids and their Neighbours: Art and Material Culture in Ninth-Century North Africa, edited by Glaire D. Anderson, Corisande Fenwick and Mariam Rosser-Owen, 551-572. Leiden: Brill, 2018.
- Mattingly, David, Martin Sterry, and David N. Edwards. “The origins and development of Zuwīla, Libyan Sahara: an archaeological and historical overview of an ancient oasis town and caravan centre.” Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 50, no. 1 (2015): 27-75.
- Moraes Farias, P.F. de. “Silent Trade: Myth and Historical Evidence.” History in Africa 1 (1974): 9–24.
- Pankhurst, Richard. A Social History of Ethiopia: the Northern and Central Highlands from Early Medieval Times to the Rise of Emperor Tewodros II. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press, 1992.
- Pankhurst, Richard. The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. Lawrence, KS: Red Sea Press, 1997.
- Pouwels, R. L. “Eastern Africa and the Indian Ocean to 1800: Reviewing Relations in Historical Perspective.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 35 (2002): 385–425.
- Ramos, Manuel João. “Ethiopia in the Geographical Representations of Mediaeval and Renaissance Europe.” In Cultures of the Indian Ocean, edited by Jessica Haller and C. Amaral, 44-54. Lisbon: Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses: Instituto Portugués de Museus, 1998.
- Robertshaw, Peter and W.L. Duncan. “African Slavery: Archaeology and Decentralized Societies.” In Invisible Citizens: Captives and Their Consequences, edited by Catherine M. Cameron, 57-79. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2008.
- Savage, Elizabeth. “Berbers and Blacks: Ibāḍī Slave Traffic in Eighth-Century North Africa.” Journal of African History 33 (1992): 351–368.
- Savage, Elizabeth, ed. The Human Commodity: Perspectives on the Trans-Saharan Slave Trade. London: Frank Cass, 1992.
- Tolmacheva, Marina A. “Concubines on the Road: Ibn Battuta’s Slave Women.” In Concubines and Courtesans: Women and Slavery in Islamic History, edited by Matthew S. Gordon and Kathryn A. Hain, 163-189. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
- Toru, Miura and John Edward Philips, eds. Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa: a Comparative Study. London and New York: Kegan Paul International, 2000.
- Trimingham, S. “The Arab Geographers and the East African Coast.” In East Africa and the Orient: Cultural Syntheses in Pre-Colonial Times, ed. N. Chittick and R. Rotberg, 115-146. London; New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1975.
- Vernet, T. “Slave trade and slavery on the Swahili coast (1500-1750).” In Slavery, Islam and Diaspora, ed. B. Mirzai, I.M. Montana, and P.E. Lovejoy, 37-76. Trenton: Africa World Press, 2009.
Carolyn Arena, Hannah Barker, Richard Eaton, Paul Lane, Stan Mirvis, Craig Perry, Henriette Rødland, Don Wyatt