Primary Sources On This Website

Primary Sources Elsewhere

  • Lopez, Robert, and Irving Raymond, eds. Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. See especially doc. 13 (Slave Sale Contract, p.45-46).
  • Rosenwein, Barbara, ed. Reading the Middle Ages: Sources from Europe, Byzantium, and the Islamic World. 3rd edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2018. Document 3.3 (A Contract of Sale, p.114).

Selected Bibliography

  • Ali, Kecia. Marriage and Slavery in Early Islam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010.
  • Anderson, Glaire. “Concubines, Eunuchs and Patronage in Early Islamic Córdoba.” In Reassessing the Roles of Women as “Makers” of Medieval Art and Architecture, vol. 2, edited by Therese Martin, 633–670. Leiden: Brill, 2012.
  • Barton, Simon. Conquerors, Brides, and Concubines: Interfaith Relations and Social Power in Medieval Iberia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.
  • Booth, Marilyn, ed. Harem Histories: Envisioning Places and Living Spaces. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.
  • Bray, Julia. “Men, Women, and Slaves in Abbasid Society.” In Gender in the Early Medieval World, East and West, 300-900, edited by Leslie Brubaker and Julia M. H. Smith, 121-146. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Chang Hsing-lang [Zhang Xinglang]. “The Importation of Negro Slaves to China under the T’ang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907).” Bulletin of the Catholic University of Peking 7 (1930): 37-59. 
  • Cho, Bup-Jong. “Studies on the Kingship of Silla and System of Nobi” (신라왕권과노비제). The Research Institute For SILLA Culture: Dongguk University, 22 (2003). [In Korean]
  • Constable, Olivia R. “Muslim Spain and Mediterranean Slavery: The Medieval Slave Trade as an Aspect of Muslim-Christian Relations,” in Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000-1500, edited by Scott Waugh and Peter Diehl, 264-84. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Delvaux, Matthew C. “Transregional Slave Networks of the Northern Arc, 700–900 C.E.” Ph.D. dissertation, Boston College, 2019.
  • Dockès, Pierre. Medieval Slavery and Liberation. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
  • Donnan, Christopher B., and Donna McClelland. Moche Fineline Painting: Its Evolution and Its Artists. Los Angeles: Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 1999.
  • Haour, Anne. “The Early Medieval Slave Trade of the Central Sahel: Archaeological and Historical Considerations.” In Slavery in Africa: Archaeology and Memory, edited by Paul J. Lane and Kevin C. MacDonald, 61-78. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Houston, Stephen, David Stuart, and Karl Taube. “Dishonor.” In The Memory of Bones: Body, Being, and Experience among the Classic Maya, 202-226. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.
  • Fontaine, Janel M. “Early Medieval Slave-Trading in the Archaeological Record: Comparative Methodologies.” Early Medieval Europe 25, no. 4 (2017): 466–488.
  • Kim, Chong-sun. “The Slaves in the Silla Village Register.” (正倉院所藏新羅帳籍에나타난奴婢) The Korean Historical Review 123 (1989). [In Korean]
  • Mattingly, David, and Martin Sterry. “Zuwila and Fazzan in the Seventh to Tenth Centuries: The Emergence of a New Trading Center.” In The Aghlabids and their Neighbours: Art and Material Culture in Ninth-Century North Africa, edited by Glaire D. Anderson, Corisande Fenwick and Mariam Rosser-Owen, 551-572. Leiden: Brill, 2018.
  • Mattson, Ingrid. “A Believing Slave is Better Than an Unbeliever: Status and Community in Early Islamic Society and Law.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 1999.
  • McCormick, Michael. “New Light on the ‘Dark Ages’: How the Slave Trade Fueled the Carolingian Economy,” Past and Present 177 (2002): 17–54. 
  • Raffield, Ben. “The Slave Markets of the Viking World: Comparative Perspectives on an ‘Invisible Archaeology,’” Slavery and Abolition 40, no. 4 (2019): 682–705.
  • Rio, Alice. “Self-Sale and Voluntary Entry into Unfreedom, 300-1100,” in Journal of Social History, 45, no. 3 (Spring 2012): 661-685.
  • Rio, Alice. Slavery After Rome, 500-1100. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
  • Savage, Elizabeth. “Berbers and Blacks: Ibāḍī Slave Traffic in Eighth-Century North Africa.” Journal of African History 33 (1992): 351–368.
  • Schneider, Irene. “Freedom and Slavery in Early Islamic Time (1st/7th and 2nd/8th Centuries).” Al-Qantara 28, no. 2 (2007): 353-382.
  • Tung, Tiffiny. “Violence Against Women: Differential Treatment of Local and Foreign Females in the Heartland of the Wari Empire, Peru.” In The Bioarchaeology of Violence, ed. Debra Martin, Ryan Harrod, and Ventura Pérez, 180-198. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2012.
  • Tung, Tiffany A. and Kelly J Knudson. “Identifying locals, migrants, and captives in the Wari Heartland: A bioarchaeological and biogeochemical study of human remains from Conchopata, Peru.” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 30, no. 3, (Sept 2011): 247-61.


Hannah Barker, Debra Blumenthal, Matthew Delvaux, Janel Fontaine, Matthew Gordon, Kim Bok-rae, Paul Lane, Rena Lauer, John Verano, Rebecca Winer, Don Wyatt