Primary Sources On This Website

Primary Sources Elsewhere

  • DeVries, Kelly, and Michael Livingston. Medieval Warfare: A Reader. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2019. See especially doc. 120 (Enslaving Noble Hostages).
  • The Digest of Justinian. Translated by Alan Watson. 4 vols. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985.
  • The Formularies of Angers and Marculf: Two Merovingian Legal Handbooks, ed. Alice Rio. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2008.
  • Gregory of Tours, “Enslaving Noble Families”
  • Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim and Jewish Sources, ed. Olivia Remie Constable. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. See especially docs. 3 (Third Council of Toledo, p.12-20).
  • Prokopios. Procopius: History of the Wars, Books VII and VIII. Translated by H.B. Dewing. London: William Heinemann, 1928. See especially p. 79-81.
  • Salic Law, excerpts. In Readings in Medieval History. Edited by Patrick Geary, 122-128. 4th edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.

Selected Bibliography

  • BanajiJairus. Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity: Gold, Labour, and Aristocratic Dominance. New ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Decker, Michael. Tilling the Hateful Earth: Agricultural Production and Trade in the Late Antique East. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Dockès, Pierre. Medieval Slavery and Liberation. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
  • Donnan, Christopher B., and Donna McClelland. Moche Fineline Painting: Its Evolution and Its Artists. Los Angeles: Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 1999.
  • Houston, Stephen, David Stuart, and Karl Taube. “Dishonor.” In The Memory of Bones: Body, Being, and Experience among the Classic Maya, 202-226. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.
  • Melluso, Marco. La schiavitù nell’età giustinianea: Disciplina giuridica e rilevanza sociale. Paris: Presses Universitaires Franc-Comtoises, 2000. [In Italian]
  • Pankhurst, Richard. The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. Lawrence, KS: Red Sea Press, 1997.
  • Rio, Alice. “Self-Sale and Voluntary Entry into Unfreedom, 300-1100,” in Journal of Social History 45, no. 3 (Spring 2012): 661-685.
  • Rio, Alice. Slavery After Rome, 500-1100. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
  • Sarris, Peter. Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Verano, John W. “Communality and Diversity in Moche Human Sacrifice.” In The Art and Archeology of the Moche, edited by Steve Bourget and Kimberly L. Jones, 195-213. Austin: The University of Texas Press, 2008.


Hannah Barker, Richard Eaton, Rena Lauer, Noel Lenski, John Verano, Michelle Ziegler