Primary Sources On This Website

Primary Sources Elsewhere

  • Amt, Emilie, ed. Women’s Lives in Medieval Europe: A Sourcebook. 2nd edition. London: Routledge, 2010. See especially doc. 34 (Anglo-Saxon Wills, p.114-117).
  • Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History. Edited by Nehemia Levtzion and J.F.P. Hopkins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. 
  • Domesday Book: A Complete Translation. Trans. Ann Williams and G.H. Martin. London: Penguin, 2003. Slaves are recorded more clearly in some shires than others. I usually use Herefordshire.
  • Ibn Buṭlān. Epistle about the Purchase of Slaves and Their Examination. Excerpts translated on the Medieval Nubia website; Jarbel Rodriguez, Muslim and Christian Contact in the Middle Ages: A Reader (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2015), doc. 86 (Ibn Butlan, How to Purchase a Slave, p.429); Bernard Lewis, Islam from the Prophet Muhammad to the Capture of Constantinople (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1974), 2: 243-251.
  • Laws of William the Conqueror
  • Lewis, Bernard, ed. Islam: From the Prophet Muhammad to the Capture of Constantinople. 3 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. See especially 2:238-243 (Al-Quduri, Laws Regarding Slaves), 2:243-251 (Ibn Butlan, On Buying Slaves).
  • Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim and Jewish Sources, ed. Olivia Remie Constable. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. See especially doc. 18 (Ibn Hazm, “On Forgetting a Beloved,” p.103-106).
  • Vernadsky, George, ed. Medieval Russian Laws. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

Selected Bibliography

  • Amitai, Reuven, and Christoph Cluse, eds. Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean (c. 1000-1500 CE). Turnhout: Brepols, 2017.
  • Anderson, Glaire. “Concubines, Eunuchs and Patronage in Early Islamic Córdoba.” In Reassessing the Roles of Women as “Makers” of Medieval Art and Architecture, vol. 2, edited by Therese Martin, 633–670. Leiden: Brill, 2012.
  • Barton, Simon. Conquerors, Brides, and Concubines: Interfaith Relations and Social Power in Medieval Iberia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.
  • Bensch, Stephen P. “From Prizes of War to Domestic Merchandise: The Changing Face of Slavery in Catalonia and Aragon, 1000-1300.” Viator 25 (1994): 63-93.
  • Brand, Charles M. “Two Byzantine Treatises on Taxation.” Traditio 25 (1969): 35-60.
  • Chatterjee, Indrani, and Richard Eaton, eds. Slavery and South Asian History. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2006.
  • Constable, Olivia Remie. “Spain and Mediterranean Slavery: The Medieval Slave Trade as an Aspect of Muslim-Christian Relations.” In Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000-1500, edited by Scott L. Waugh and Peter D. Diehl, 264-284. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 
  • Freed, John. “The Origins of the European Nobility: The Problem of the Ministerials.” Viator 7 (1976): 211-241.
  • Fontaine, Janel M. “Early Medieval Slave-Trading in the Archaeological Record: Comparative Methodologies.” Early Medieval Europe 25, no. 4 (2017): 466–488.
  • Gronenborn, Detlef. “Kanem-Borno: A Brief Summary of the History and Archaeology of an Empire of the Central bilad al-sudan.” In West Africa During the Atlantic Slave Trade: Archaeological Perspectives, edited by Christopher DeCorse, 101-130. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 2001.
  • Haour, Anne. “The Early Medieval Slave Trade of the Central Sahel: Archaeological and Historical Considerations.” In Slavery in Africa: Archaeology and Memory, edited by Paul J. Lane and Kevin C. MacDonald, 61-78. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Holm, Poul. “The Slave Trade of Dublin, Ninth to Twelfth Centuries,” Peritia5 (1986): 317–45.
  • Hong, Sung-gi. Research on Koryo Nobis (고려시대의노비연구). (Sugang University Press, 1980). [In Korean]
  • Karras, Ruth M. Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
  • Kohler, Timothy A. and Kathryn Kramer Turner. “Raiding for Women in the Pre-Hispanic Northern Pueblo Southwest? A Pilot Examination.” Current Anthropology 47, no. 6 (2006): 1035-45.
  • Korpela, Jukka Jari. Slaves from the North: Finns and Karelians in the East European Slave Trade, 900–1600. Studies in Global Slavery 5. Leiden: Brill, 2018.
  • Koziol, Kathryn. “Performances of Imposed Status: Captivity at Cahokia.” In The Bioarchaeology of Violence, edited by Debra L. Martin, Ryan P. Harrod, and Ventura R. Pérez, 226-250. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2012.
  • Lemerle, Paul. The Agrarian History of Byzantium: From the Seventh to the Twelfth Century – Sources and Problems. Galway: Galway University Press, 1979. 
  • Mattson, Ingrid. “A Believing Slave is Better Than an Unbeliever: Status and Community in Early Islamic Society and Law.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 1999.
  • Myrne, Pernilla. “Slaves for Pleasure in Arabic Sex Manuals from the Tenth to the Twelfth Centuries.” Journal of Global Slavery 4:2 (2019), 196-225.
  • Pelteret, David. Slavery in Early Medieval England: From the Reign of Alfred until the Twelfth Century. Rochester: Boydell & Brewer, 1995.
  • Perry, Craig. “The Daily Life of Slaves and the Global Reach of Slavery.” Ph. D. diss., Emory University, 2014.
  • Rio, Alice. “Self-Sale and Voluntary Entry into Unfreedom, 300-1100.” Journal of Social History, 45, no. 3 (2012): 661-685.
  • Rio, Alice. Slavery After Rome, 500-1100. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
  • Roslund, Mats. Guests in the House: Cultural Transmission between Slavs and Scandinavians 900 to 1300 AD, trans. Alan Crozier, The Northern World 33 (Leiden: Brill, 2007).
  • Wink, André. al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, vol. 2: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th -13th Centuries. Leiden, 1997.
  • Wyatt, David. Slaves and Warriors in Medieval Britain and Ireland, 800-1200. Leiden: Brill, 2009.


Hannah Barker, Debra Blumenthal, Catherine Cameron, Matthew Delvaux, Richard Eaton, Paul Lane, Noel Lenski, Cody Osguthorpe, Craig Perry, John Verano, Rebecca Winer, Don Wyatt